Loo Another "round game", in three-card and five-card variants. Commerce A game in which cards are traded to get the best hand of three cards where a three of a kind is ranked highest. First, Christmas day itself didn't necessarily have that much cross-generational family ritual associated with it. Card Games Vingt-un "Twenty-one", or "blackjack". Most casinos allow players to play more than one hand per round, assuming there are empty spots on the table.

USING THE PROPER HITTING AND STANDING STRATEGIES

BONUS PAYOFF FOR A BLACKJACK

So before you sit down to play, be sure to check the betting limits posted on the table. Prior to the deal of the cards, all players must make a bet by placing chips in their respective betting boxes. Every player and the dealer will receive two cards. The two player cards can be dealt either face up, or face down. In this case you should not handle the cards. In games in which the dealer deals from the hand by pitching the cards to the players single- or double-deck games , the player cards are usually dealt both face down.

In these games it is permissible for the player to handle the cards with one hand only, and the cards must always be above the table. This means you want the dealer to give another card to your hand. In shoe games, indicate to the dealer that you want a hit by making a beckoning motion with your finger or tapping the table behind your cards with your finger.

In hand-held games, scratch the edges of the cards in your hand lightly on the felt. If you have two like cards e. When you split, you must make another bet equal to your original bet, just place your chip next to the original chip bet on the hand. When you pair split, you are playing each card as a separate hand and you can draw as many cards as you like to each hand, except split aces; most casinos will allow only one draw card to each ace.

For example, if you were dealt a pair of 8s, and split, you would have two separate hands with a count of 8 in each hand. You are required to play out one of the split hands on your right first to completion before the other. In shoe games, you indicate that you want to split by placing another chip next to the original chip. For hand-held games, toss the two cards you want to split face up on the layout and then make the secondary wager.

Most casinos will also allow players to split any value cards such as a jack-ten or queen-king, although, as you will soon learn about pair splitting , this is not a recommended playing strategy.

This means you are satisfied with the total of the hand and want to stand with the cards you have. In shoe games, indicate that you want to stand by waving your hand over the cards, palm down. In hand-held games, tuck your cards under the chips that you have in the betting box.

This playing option allows you to double your initial bet in return for receiving one and only one draw card. In most casinos, you can only double down after you receive your first two cards and before drawing another card. To signal the dealer that you want to double down in shoe-dealt games, just place your chip next to the original chip bet on the hand.

In hand-held games, toss your cards on the table face-up and then make the secondary bet. This playing option is sometimes permitted. It allows a player to forfeit the hand immediately with an automatic loss of half the original bet.

Once a player draws a card, the surrender option is no longer available. If the dealer has a blackjack hand, then surrender is not available. The player is no longer involved in that round. Another type of surrender is sometimes offered and it is known as early surrender. Here players can surrender their hand before the dealer checks her hole card for a blackjack.

Early surrender is a more favorable player option than late surrender. Here you can read more about it. Players can make an insurance bet less than or equal to one-half of the initial bet made on the hand. You win your insurance bet if the dealer has a ten-value card in the hole. A winning insurance bet pays off at 2 to 1 odds. Taking even money yields the same result as making an insurance bet on your blackjack hand. Unlike players, the dealer in blackjack has no playing options.

Casino rules specify that a dealer must draw if her hand totals less than 17 and stand when the total is 17 to In some casinos, dealers must stand on soft 17 and in others they must hit. If the player and dealer have the same total, the hand is a tie, or push, and the player retains his bet. The casino game of blackjack has its procedures, codes of conduct, and playing strategies.

The procedures are essential to ensure the security and integrity of the game. What follows is a list of common faux pas made by novice players so that you will avoid making them. All cash transactions must be visible to the security cameras, so always place your cash on the layout outside of your betting spot, and then tell the dealer what denomination chips you want. When four or more decks of cards are used, they are usually dealt face up to each player from a dealing shoe.

The reason the cards are dealt face up is two-fold. The cards in your hand must always be in full view of the dealer and the security cameras. Therefore, you should never, for example, hold them in your lap or below the level of the table.

Your original bet must stay on the layout untouched until it either wins, loses, or ties. For security reasons, you must always use hand signals, not words to signify to the dealer how you want to play your hand. If your hand gestures do not match what you say, it can be considered duplicitous or deliberately misleading, so stick to hand signals not words.

If you are wagering two or more different denomination chips, always place the higher denomination chip on the bottom of the stack.

The reason is that most players have the irrational superstition that a new player entering in the middle of a shoe will change the flow of the cards on subsequent hands, causing them to lose. If you are a smoker, be courteous to your fellow players and the dealer by not blowing smoke in their direction. A typical American roulette wheel has 38 numbers — 1 through 36 plus 0 and Suppose you place a bet on your lucky number 7.

Mathematically you have a 1 in 38 chance that the roulette ball will land on 7. The odds are constant and do not change, regardless of the results of previous spins.

The roulette ball, if you wish, has no memory. But the game of blackjack offers players a ray of hope. Let me explain by way of another example. Suppose you sat down at a single-deck game and waited for the dealer to complete the shuffling of the cards before you made your first bet. What are the chances that you will be dealt a blackjack two-card hand of ace and a ten-valued card?

Mathematically you have about a 1 in 21 chance of being dealt a blackjack. Now suppose during the play of the first round you noticed that four aces had been dealt. At the start of the second round, what is your chance of getting a blackjack? In other words, your chances of winning a particular hand are quite dependent upon what cards were played in the previous rounds, meaning that blackjack is a game based on dependent trial processes.

As you will learn in subsequent chapters, the mix of the previously played cards has a great influence on your chance of winning the next hand. This concept may seem complicated now but it will become much clearer in subsequent chapters. For now just remember these facts of blackjack: Yes, you read that right. You can reduce the house edge to virtually zero, or even enjoy a slight edge, by learning how to play your hands and how much to bet on each hand.

Fortunately, not all is equal when you play blackjack. Players have certain advantages and options that are not available to the dealer. This bonus 3 to 2 payout for the player cuts about 2. By knowing the proper hitting and standing blackjack playing strategy , a player can whittle another 3. Remember that players can stand or hit as they wish, unlike the dealer who must always stand on and hit 16 or less.

If you learn the right strategies for doubling down , you can whittle another 1. This leaves the house with about a 0. The percentages vary slightly based on the number of decks of cards and the playing rules. Hopefully you see how crucial correct standing, doubling, and splitting are toward your goal of minimizing the house edge.

In fact, most of the time that you double or split will be when the dealer has a small upcard 2—6. What follows is an example of how much money you can save by learning the correct playing strategies.

A player who mimics the dealer but gets 3 to 2 on blackjack hands would face a 5. For several reasons, blackjack is the most popular casino card game in the world: The origins of blackjack are not entirely clear.

It began showing up in French casinos around The rules for vingt-et-un differ from blackjack as we know it. Moreover, if the dealer got a natural, players would pay him triple. Nevertheless, there are some striking similarities with modern blackjack; namely, the hand-ranking system and the goal of trying to achieve On the other hand, Jane Austen doesn't believe that one should confuse novels with real life, a problem which is shared by Catherine Morland in Northanger Abbey , Sir Edward Denham in Sanditon , and many of the characters in Love and Freindship as accurately diagnosed by Sir Edward.

A performance is, in the most concrete sense, a display of " accomplishments ", such as playing music, as with Elizabeth and Lady Catherine at Rosings. However in Pride and Prejudice , "performance" is also used as a metaphor. As is also the case with many other topics , Jane Austen is never explicit on this subject even if she had wanted to be, it would have been very difficult for someone in her social role -- a never-married "genteel" female living in her family.

Nevertheless, there are several passages that clearly refer to sex or the absence thereof , if you understand the code words:. When it is stated that " Mr. Bennet was not of a disposition to seek comfort, for the disappointment which his own imprudence [in marrying a narrow-minded foolish woman] had brought on, in any of those pleasures which too often console the unfortunate for their folly or their vice", this means, among other things, that Mr. Bennet remained faithful to his wife.

Similarly, when it is stated of Lydia that "in spite of her youth and her manners, she retained all the claims to reputation which her marriage had given her", this means she was not involved in any other sexual misadventures after her original elopement with Wickham , but remained faithful to him. And when the inhabitants of Meryton resign themselves to the fact that Lydia will not "come upon the town; or Collins advised -- and Wickham had abandoned her.

See also a discussion of the lack of male sexual predation in Jane Austen's writings in contrast to many novels of the period written by other authors. Of course, in Jane Austen's day there was a sexual double standard: Thus Wickham still hopes to be able to marry a "well-portioned" woman in a "fortune-hunting" marriage even after his misadventure with Lydia.

Jane Austen's most explicit comment on this double standard is in her dismissal of the character Henry Crawford at the end of Mansfield Park who had run off with Mrs.

In this world the penalty is less equal than could be wished; but Though Jane Austen's era was more tolerant in some ways than the later full Victorian period, "country gentlewomen" such as Jane Austen and most of her female characters were not affected all that much by any laxness of sexual standards among other groups -- so the following quotes from Pride and Prejudice on Lydia do not at all exaggerate some of the conventional attitudes towards "fallen women", but are only expressed in different ways appropriate to each character the didacticism of Mary and the unconscious blundering of Mr.

Jane Austen clearly disagrees with such excessive rigidity only unsympathetic characters in the novel hold these views , but while she finds excuses for Lydia her youth, her mother's encouragement, and her father's passivity , she doesn't at all intend to defend Lydia's conduct.

Actually, not all that much needs to be said, since the basic points if not the subtler ones can be picked up from context. Jane Austen confines herself to the "genteel", those socially recognized as being invitable; but as pointed out by Craik , this actually covers a fairly broad financial range -- thus Mrs. Phillips comes in social contact with Darcy , and Mr. Knightley with Miss Bates. Anyone with any pretensions to gentility can afford to hire servants even Mrs. In a letter of October 27, , Jane Austen wrote: What a prodigious innate love of virtue she must have, to marry under such circumstances!

One thing that may not be obvious is that it is always more "genteel" to be a rural land-owner than to be actively involved in commerce , no matter how much money you're making in business thus "trade", or business, can be a disparaging word.

This is why Mr. Gardiner is looked down upon by the Bingley sisters and Lady Catherine. Charlotte Lucas is a victim of Sir William Lucas being taken in by this myth of rural land-owning gentility.

This paragraph in chapter 45 , during the visit to Pemberley, after Miss Bingley's snide remark about the militia being removed from Meryton, does in fact mean that Darcy had hoped that his sister would marry Bingley; here's a version of the paragraph with annotations supplied by Arnessa:. Not a syllable had ever reached her [Miss Bingley] of Miss Darcy's meditated elopement. To no creature had it been revealed, where secresy was possible, except to Elizabeth; and from all Bingley's connections, her brother [Darcy] was particularly anxious to conceal it, from that very wish which Elizabeth had long ago attributed to him [Darcy], of their [the Bingleys] becoming hereafter her [Miss Darcy's] own [connections].

He [Darcy] had certainly formed such a plan, and without meaning that it should affect his [Darcy's] endeavour to separate him [Bingley] from Miss [Jane] Bennet, it is probable that it might add something to his [Darcy's] lively concern for the welfare of his friend.

A "rector" was a Church of England clergyman on the highest rung of the hierarchy of ecclesiastical endowment entitlement to agricultural tithes, and security of tenure: The word "country" can be used to mean the countryside as opposed to the cities, especially London , or it can mean a local district of Britain such as a "county" or "shire" -- see the map of England ; it less often means a whole nation cf. Conversely, "town", when unpreceded by a definite or indefinite article, means London.

Literally, a French masculine plural adjective, meaning "handsome ones"; used to mean handsome, pleasant men, especially marriageable men.

In Jane Austen's novels this word tends to be used only by vulgar or unsympathetic characters. To be "out" meant being permitted to attend the more grown-up social events, such as balls and assemblies; in effect it means that a young lady has entered onto the "marriage market" cf. This was not one of Jane Austen's favorite social customs, as she makes abundantly clear in a passage in her novel Mansfield Park ; see also the hilarious parody, in one of her Juvenilia , of a mother's bringing her daughters "out".

She also wrote, in a letter of August 10, The basic rule of precedence referred to here is that the daughters of a family take precedence according to seniority i.

This is why Lydia, even though she is the youngest daughter, now takes precedence over the eldest, Jane -- at least until the time when Jane too marries thus at the end of Persuasion , youngest daughter Mrs. Charles Musgrove [Mary] has "something to suffer" in seeing her newly-married elder sister Anne "restored to the rights of seniority".

Note that the precedence between sisters can also be affected by further complicating factors such as the ranks of the husbands that they marry , and that the whole subject of precedence is rather involved. A French dance "The Baker". See the music and the somewhat illegible instructions for this dance "Co: In a letter of late , Jane Austen wrote, "Miss Bigg And one may be as well be single, if the Wedding is not to be in print.

The petticoat would have been slightly shorter than the outermost layer the gown , and made of a coarser, cheaper, and easier-to-wash material than the gown, so that when Elizabeth walked through the mud, she would have lifted up her gown and let the petticoat underneath take the brunt of the dirt thus protecting the gown, while still being decently covered down to near her ankles; at that time, the lower part of the outer petticoat was not really considered underwear, and was often decorated in the expectation of its being publicly seen.

The idea was that when she arrived at Netherfield, she could let down the down the gown the outermost and most fragile layer that she had been trying to preserve so that it would cover the muddy petticoat, so that she would have a more presentable externally undirtied appearance -- only there was so much mud that this plan apparently wasn't entirely successful in the hyper-critical eyes of the Bingley sisters, at least It says in chapter Collins said anything of which his wife might reasonably be ashamed, which certainly was not unseldom, she [Elizabeth] involuntarily turned her eye on Charlotte.

However, a quick perusal of the OED Oxford English Dictionary shows that "not unseldom" was simply a fixed phrase or idiom with the meaning "not infrequently" which comes to pretty much the same thing as "frequently". In fact, the word "unseldom" was really only used as part of the phrase "not unseldom". Collins declares that he will "trespass on your hospitality" from "Monday, November 18th" to "the Saturday se'nnight following", this means he will stay twelve days, until November 30th, the first Saturday which is more than a week after his arrival "Saturday week" in modern British English.

His visit is timed so that he will only have to find a clerical substitute for one Sunday. See Chapman and McKinnon's chronology. According to the chronology of the novel , the Gardiners arrive on Monday December 23rd, and leave to return home , taking Jane with them, on Monday December 30th -- and three months later, when Elizabeth travels through London , it is revealed that she has not seen the Gardiner children "for a twelvemonth".

First, Christmas day itself didn't necessarily have that much cross-generational family ritual associated with it. However, there generally weren't any major "child-centered" rituals marking Christmas, and Jane Austen's period was actually kind of a low point for special Christmas-specific customs among the English gentry classes the days when "God Rest Ye Merry Gentleman" was practically the only Christmas song known to the general English population at large, and when in the southern English cities Christmas carols were mostly sung only as a lower-class begging technique ; this period was towards the end of a long period of slow decline in Christmas customs which followed the Puritan attacks on Christmas in the 17th century, and was before the revivals of the 's Dickens' Christmas Carol , the importation of the Christmas tree into Britain from Germany by Prince Albert, etc.

Second, the Gardiners' visit over Christmas was very short by pre-railway standards a flying visit of only a week long , and if the Gardiners had chosen to bring their children along, this would also have meant taking along a set of nurserymaids and possibly some additional other servants , as John and Isabella Knightley do when they visit Hartfield in Emma , which would have made at least one additional carriage necessary probably two and greatly increased the expense and inconvenience of the journey.

So it was not surprising according to the standards of the time that the Gardiners did not choose to complicate their very brief visit in this way, and they were not necessarily depriving their children of any expected celebration in doing so.

At semi-informal dance events but not really at grand formal balls , if there were more young women than young men, then some of the young women would sometimes dance with each other. Sisters also often danced together at home, to practice their dancing; see this contemporary picture of two sisters dancing.

Bennet is pretending to be an exaggeratedly harsh caricature of an ultra-restrictive parent, for comic effect apparently always the comedian, Mr. Bennet , and to give vent to his irritated feelings.

Elizabeth certainly understands him here, but Kitty doesn't. This explains why Darcy's first name is the same as his cousin Col.

The name "Shirley" has an interesting history in this way: But as a result of the novel, "Shirley" started to come into use as a girl's name in real life When Lydia is described as "a stout, well-grown girl of fifteen, with a fine complexion and good-humoured countenance" , the word "stout" does not really mean "fat", but simply "healthy and robust".

Red cheeks and a strong healthy frame were contrasted with paleness and feebleness, and a body made thin or "wasted" with disease.

For example, Elizabeth Bennet says earlier in the same chapter: Every thing nourishes what is strong already. But if it be only a slight, thin sort of inclination, I am convinced that one good sonnet will starve it entirely away. This " bad grammar " is meant to reflect negatively on Lydia , who does not "improve her mind through reading".

As pointed out recently on AUSTEN-L , the narration suddenly breaks into the first-person here it is third-person in the rest of the novel. It is interesting that Darcy is described as "violently in love" near the end of the novel, since earlier Mrs. Gardiner had engaged in just criticisms of this very phrase as a "hackneyed expression".

See "Jane Austen's Limitations". A "gamester" is a gambler, and "debts of honour" are those incurred in betting, and not legally enforceable. Both Lydia and Mr. Collins are intended to come off badly in the little scene in Chapter 14, as pointed out by Craik , p. It is interesting that the speech styles of Lydia and Mr.

Collins as calculated from the use of the most-frequently occurring words , diverge from each other more than do almost all other possible pairings of the speech styles of two different characters in the novel -- see Burrows , p.

Although Jane Austen feels no call to dwell upon the degrading conditions suffered by the common soldier, she shows herself as aware as her contemporaries of the brutal discipline enforced. June " -- watercolor by Diana Sperling: In Jane Austen's era, quite serious infectious diseases were sometimes called "putrid sore throat", so we aren't meant to be too complacent about Jane's illness.

The words "Candid" and "Candour" did not generally take on the connotation of being brutally frank, as they sometimes do now. The most usual meaning of "candid" according to Dr. Johnson's dictionary, was "Free from malice; not desirous to find faults", though according to the OED, it could also have the connotations "unbiased, impartial, open, sincere".

Go to start of notes. Engagement and the Propriety of Correspondence. List of passages in Pride and Prejudice dealing with letter-writing. List of letters in Pride and Prejudice. Visits, Traveling, and Carriages. SEX in Pride and Prejudice!!! Jane Austen's opinion on the infidelities of the Prince and Princess of Wales. Class in Pride and Prejudice. Dialogue from Mansfield Park on the custom of girls' coming "Out" "Jane, I take your place now, and you must go lower, because I am a married woman.

Why didn't the Gardiners bring their children with them when they came to stay at Longbourn over Christmas? Notes on Education, Marriage, Status of Women, etc. Education, Women's Education, and "Accomplishments". Feminism in Jane Austen. Marriage and the Alternatives: The Status of Women. Notes on the proprieties of male-female interaction and some modern misconceptions. An explanation of aristocratic honorifics such as "Lady","Lord", "Sir".

Jane Austen on gender differences Some failed pick-up lines from Jane Austen Notes and illustrations on the clothing styles of Jane Austen's time with C. So it can be taken for granted that when this phrase appears as part of the narration of Pride and Prejudice , Jane Austen is not using it in a simple way: Wickham and the officers, Mr.

Collins seemed likely to sink into insignificance. Thus the following dialog from Northanger Abbey: Letters "The post-office is a wonderful establishment! The regularity and despatch of it! If one thinks of all that it has to do, and all that it does so well, it is really astonishing!

So seldom that any negligence or blunder appears! So seldom that a letter, among the thousands that are constantly passing about the kingdom, is even carried wrong -- and not one in a million, I suppose, actually lost! And when one considers the variety of hands, and of bad hands too, that are to be deciphered, it increases the wonder.

Go to annotated Hypertext of Love and Freindship Go to annotated text of The Three Sisters Go to text of Lady Susan Go to text of Lesley Castle excerpts Go to miscellaneous scraps, mainly epistolary, from the Juvenilia Go to Jane Austen's letters Brabourne edition In Jane Austen's day, there were no envelopes or postage stamps , and the "envelope" mentioned in connection with Caroline Bingley's letter and Darcy's letter was merely another sheet of paper folded around the rest there could be writing on one side of the "envelope", as well as on the part of the other side that didn't end up on the outside of the letter.

Go to index of references to letter-writing in Jane Austen's own letters Engagement and the Propriety of Correspondence One important rule of protocol of the period is that a correspondence between two unmarried and marriageable unrelated young people of the opposite sex is a sign that the two are engaged.

List of passages in Pride and Prejudice dealing with letter-writing This does not include the the quotes from specific letters listed below. During the crisis over Lydia , at Longbourn "the arrival of letters was the first grand object of every morning's impatience. Through letters, whatever of good or bad was to be told would be communicated, and every succeeding day was expected to bring some news of importance.

Bennet's "family knew him to be, on all common occasions, a most negligent and dilatory correspondent" ; he "so little liked [Elizabeth's] going that he told her to write to him, and almost promised to answer her letter".

Darcy's letter to Georgiana: Caroline Bingley perpetually commends him "on his hand-writing, or on the evenness of his lines, or on the length of his letter". He studies too much for words of four syllables".