The Journal of Libertarian Studies

Chicago Illinois Institute of Technology. It was getting a steady stream of immigration into its cloth trade, and Gottfried believed that its population had by this time regained its pre-plague levels. I focus on learning who a person is uniquely, offering genuine warmth and support, as well as practical feedback. Those in prison were sometimes moved out to private houses, and bailed to avoid the plague. The core personality attributes of psychopathy were no longer included in the criteria.

Update: 2013-2017.

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Stanley Hall , who "promoted the link between the study of development and the 'new' laboratory psychology", [42] and especially with the work of Jean Piaget , who "saw cognitive development as being analogous to biological development", [43] it became understood that the psychological development of children occurs in stages and that their capacities differ from adults.

Hence, stories and activities, whether in books, film, or video games were developed specifically for child audiences. Countries have responded to the special needs of children and the rise of digital entertainment by developing systems such as television content rating systems , to guide the public and the entertainment industry. In the 21st century, as with adult products, much entertainment is available for children on the internet for private use.

This constitutes a significant change from earlier times. The amount of time expended by children indoors on screen-based entertainment and the "remarkable collapse of children's engagement with nature" has drawn criticism for its negative effects on imagination , adult cognition and psychological well-being.

They were an integral part of court entertainments 3 , 4 and helped entertainers develop their skills 2 , 3. They are also important components of celebrations such as coronations 9 , weddings 7 , birthdays 10 civic or political achievements 5 , military engagements or victories 6 as well as religious obligations 1.

In modern times, banquets are commercially available, for example, in restaurants 10 and combined with a performance in dinner theatres. Cooking by professional chefs has also become a form of entertainment as part of global competitions such as the Bocuse d'Or. Music is a supporting component of many kinds of entertainment and most kinds of performance.

For example, it is used to enhance storytelling, it is indispensable in dance 1 , 4 and opera, and is usually incorporated into dramatic film or theatre productions. Music is also a universal and popular type of entertainment on its own, constituting an entire performance such as when concerts are given 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9.

Depending on the rhythm , instrument , performance and style, music is divided into many genres, such as classical , jazz , folk , 4 , 5 , 8 , rock , pop music 6 , 9 or traditional 1 , 3. Since the 20th century, performed music, once available only to those who could pay for the performers, has been available cheaply to individuals by the entertainment industry, which broadcasts it or pre-records it for sale. The wide variety of musical performances, whether or not they are artificially amplified 6 , 7 , 9 , 10 , all provide entertainment irrespective of whether the performance is from soloists 6 , choral 2 or orchestral groups 5 , 8 , or ensemble 3.

Live performances use specialised venues, which might be small or large; indoors or outdoors; free or expensive. The audiences have different expectations of the performers as well as of their own role in the performance. For example, some audiences expect to listen silently and are entertained by the excellence of the music, its rendition or its interpretation 5 , 8. Other audiences of live performances are entertained by the ambience and the chance to participate 7 , 9. Even more listeners are entertained by pre-recorded music and listen privately The instruments used in musical entertainment are either solely the human voice 2 , 6 or solely instrumental 1 , 3 or some combination of the two 4 , 5 , 7 , 8.

Whether the performance is given by vocalists or instrumentalists , the performers may be soloists or part of a small or large group, in turn entertaining an audience that might be individual 10 , passing by 3 , small 1 , 2 or large 6 , 7 , 8 , 9. Singing is generally accompanied by instruments although some forms, notably a cappella and overtone singing , are unaccompanied. Modern concerts often use various special effects and other theatrics to accompany performances of singing and dancing 7.

Games are played for entertainment—sometimes purely for entertainment, sometimes for achievement or reward as well. They can be played alone, in teams, or online; by amateurs or by professionals. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship.

On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Often, part of the entertainment for children playing a game is deciding who is part of their audience and who is a player.

Equipment varies with the game. Board games , such as Go , Monopoly or backgammon need a board and markers. One of the oldest known board games is Senet , a game played in Ancient Egypt, enjoyed by the pharaoh Tutankhamun. For these games, all that is needed is a deck of playing cards. Other games, such as bingo , played with numerous strangers, have been organised to involve the participation of non-players via gambling. Many are geared for children , and can be played outdoors, including hopscotch , hide and seek , or Blind man's bluff.

The list of ball games is quite extensive. It includes, for example, croquet , lawn bowling and paintball as well as many sports using various forms of balls. The options cater to a wide range of skill and fitness levels.

Physical games can develop agility and competence in motor skills. Number games such as Sudoku and puzzle games like the Rubik's cube can develop mental prowess. Video games are played using a controller to create results on a screen. They can also be played online with participants joining in remotely. In the second half of the 20th century and in the 21st century the number of such games increased enormously, providing a wide variety of entertainment to players around the world.

Reading has been a source of entertainment for a very long time, especially when other forms, such as performance entertainments, were or are either unavailable or too costly. Even when the primary purpose of the writing is to inform or instruct, reading is well known for its capacity to distract from everyday worries. Both stories and information have been passed on through the tradition of orality and oral traditions survive in the form of performance poetry for example.

However, they have drastically declined. Furthermore, as fonts were standardised and texts became clearer, "reading ceased being a painful process of decipherment and became an act of pure pleasure".

Among literature 's many genres are some designed, in whole or in part, purely for entertainment. Limericks , for example, use verse in a strict, predictable rhyme and rhythm to create humour and to amuse an audience of listeners or readers. Interactive books such as " choose your own adventure " can make literary entertainment more participatory. Comics and cartoons are literary genres that use drawings or graphics, usually in combination with text, to convey an entertaining narrative.

Others have unique authors who offer a more personal, philosophical view of the world and the problems people face.

Comics about superheroes such as Superman are of the first type. Schulz [58] who produced a popular comic called Peanuts [59] about the relationships among a cast of child characters; [60] and Michael Leunig who entertains by producing whimsical cartoons that also incorporate social criticism.

The Japanese Manga style differs from the western approach in that it encompasses a wide range of genres and themes for a readership of all ages. Caricature uses a kind of graphic entertainment for purposes ranging from merely putting a smile on the viewer's face, to raising social awareness, to highlighting the moral characteristics of a person being caricatured. Comedy is both a genre of entertainment and a component of it, providing laughter and amusement, whether the comedy is the sole purpose or used as a form of contrast in an otherwise serious piece.

It is a valued contributor to many forms of entertainment, including in literature, theatre, opera, film and games. This highly structured role of jester consisted of verbal humour, including teasing , jests, insult , ridicule, and obscenity and non-verbal humour such as slapstick and horseplay in the presence of an audience.

Shakespeare wrote seventeen comedies that incorporate many techniques still used by performers and writers of comedy—such as jokes , puns , parody , wit , observational humor , or the unexpected effect of irony. In farce , the comedy is a primary purpose. The meaning of the word "comedy" and the audience's expectations of it have changed over time and vary according to culture.

However, as cultures become more sophisticated, national nuances appear in the style and references so that what is amusing in one culture may be unintelligible in another. Live performances before an audience constitute a major form of entertainment, especially before the invention of audio and video recording.

Performance takes a wide range of forms, including theatre, music and drama. In the 16th and 17th centuries, European royal courts presented masques that were complex theatrical entertainments involving dancing, singing and acting. Opera is a similarly demanding performance style that remains popular. It also encompass all three forms, demanding a high level of musical and dramatic skill, collaboration and like the masque, production expertise as well.

Audiences generally show their appreciation of an entertaining performance with applause. However, all performers run the risk of failing to hold their audience's attention and thus, failing to entertain.

Audience dissatisfaction is often brutally honest and direct. Storytelling is an ancient form of entertainment that has influenced almost all other forms. It is "not only entertainment, it is also thinking through human conflicts and contradictions". Written stories have been enhanced by illustrations, often to a very high artistic standard, for example, on illuminated manuscripts and on ancient scrolls such as Japanese ones.

Showing how stories are used to pass the time and entertain an audience of travellers, Chaucer used pilgrims in his literary work The Canterbury Tales in the 14th century, as did Wu Cheng'en in the 16th century in Journey to the West. Even though journeys can now be completed much faster, stories are still told to passengers en route in cars and aeroplanes either orally or delivered by some form of technology. The power of stories to entertain is evident in one of the most famous ones— Scheherazade —a story in the Persian professional storytelling tradition, of a woman who saves her own life by telling stories.

For example, composers Rimsky-Korsakov , Ravel and Szymanowski have each been inspired by the Scheherazade story and turned it into an orchestral work; director Pasolini made a film adaptation ; and there is an innovative video game based on the tale. Stories may be told wordlessly, in music, dance or puppetry for example, such as in the Javanese tradition of wayang , in which the performance is accompanied by a gamelan orchestra or the similarly traditional Punch and Judy show.

Epic narratives, poems, sagas and allegories from all cultures tell such gripping tales that they have inspired countless other stories in all forms of entertainment. Collections of stories, such as Grimms' Fairy Tales or those by Hans Christian Andersen , have been similarly influential. Originally published in the early 19th century, this collection of folk stories significantly influence modern popular culture, which subsequently used its themes, images, symbols, and structural elements to create new entertainment forms.

Some of the most powerful and long-lasting stories are the foundation stories, also called origin or creation myths such as the Dreamtime myths of the Australian aborigines , the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh , [75] or the Hawaiian stories of the origin of the world. Theatre performances, typically dramatic or musical, are presented on a stage for an audience and have a history that goes back to Hellenistic times when "leading musicians and actors" performed widely at "poetical competitions", for example at " Delphi , Delos , Ephesus ".

Aristotle posed questions such as "What is the function of the arts in shaping character? Should a member of the ruling class merely watch performances or be a participant and perform? What kind of entertainment should be provided for those who do not belong to the elite? Expectations about the performance and their engagement with it have changed over time 1. Operetta and music halls became available, and new drama theatres such as the Moscow Art Theatre and the Suvorin Theatre in Russia opened.

Plays , [86] musicals , [87] monologues , pantomimes , and performance poetry are part of the very long history of theatre, which is also the venue for the type of performance known as stand-up comedy.

The stage and the spaces set out in front of it for an audience create a theatre. All types of stage are used with all types of seating for the audience, including the impromptu or improvised 2 , 3 , 6 ; the temporary 2 ; the elaborate 9 ; or the traditional and permanent 5 , 7. They are erected indoors 3 , 5 , 9 or outdoors 2 , 4 , 6.

The skill of managing, organising and preparing the stage for a performance is known as stagecraft The audience's experience of the entertainment is affected by their expectations, the stagecraft, the type of stage, and the type and standard of seating provided. Films are a major form of entertainment, although not all films have entertainment as their primary purpose: The medium was a global business from the beginning: Increasingly sophisticated techniques have been used in the film medium to delight and entertain audiences.

Animation , for example, which involves the display of rapid movement in an art work, is one of these techniques that particularly appeals to younger audiences.

This is similar to the way that the nobility in earlier times could stage private musical performances or the use of domestic theatres in large homes to perform private plays in earlier centuries.

Films also re-imagine entertainment from other forms, turning stories, books and plays, for example, into new entertainments. It demonstrates that while some films, particularly those in the Hollywood tradition that combines "realism and melodramatic romanticism", [97] are intended as a form of escapism , others require a deeper engagement or more thoughtful response from their audiences.

For example, the award winning Senegalese film Xala takes government corruption as its theme. Charlie Chaplin 's film The Great Dictator was a brave and innovative parody, also on a political theme. The many forms of dance provide entertainment for all age groups and cultures. Dance can be serious in tone, such as when it is used to express a culture's history or important stories; it may be provocative; or it may put in the service of comedy.

Dance is "a form of cultural representation" that involves not just dancers, but " choreographers , audience members, patrons and impresarios For example, in Africa, there are " Dahomean dances, Hausa dances, Masai dances and so forth.

On the other hand, many folk dances such as Scottish Highland dancing and Irish dancing , have evolved into competitions, which by adding to their audiences, has increased their entertainment value. Since dance is often "associated with the female body and women's experiences", [] female dancers, who dance to entertain, have in some cases been regarded as distinct from "decent" women because they "use their bodies to make a living instead of hiding them as much as possible".

For example, while some cultures regard any dancing by women as "the most shameful form of entertainment", [] other cultures have established venues such as strip clubs where deliberately erotic or sexually provocative dances such as striptease are performed in public by professional women dancers for mostly male audiences.

Various political regimes have sought to control or ban dancing or specific types of dancing, sometimes because of disapproval of the music or clothes associated with it. Nationalism, authoritarianism and racism have played a part in banning dances or dancing. For example, during the Nazi regime, American dances such as swing , regarded as "completely un-German", had "become a public offense and needed to be banned". Banning had the effect of making "the dance craze" even greater.

Dances can be performed solo 1 , 4 ; in pairs, 2 , 3 ; in groups, 5 , 6 , 7 ; or by massed performers They might be improvised 4 , 8 or highly choreographed 1 , 2 , 5 , 10 ; spontaneous for personal entertainment, such as when children begin dancing for themselves ; a private audience, 4 ; a paying audience 2 ; a world audience 10 ; or an audience interested in a particular dance genre 3 , 5.

They might be a part of a celebration, such as a wedding or New Year 6 , 8 ; or a cultural ritual with a specific purpose, such as a dance by warriors like a haka 7. Some dances, such as traditional dance in 1 and ballet in 2 , need a very high level of skill and training; others, such as the can-can , require a very high level of energy and physical fitness.

Entertaining the audience is a normal part of dance but its physicality often also produces joy for the dancers themselves 9. Animals have been used for the purposes of entertainment for millennia. They have been hunted for entertainment as opposed to hunted for food ; displayed while they hunt for prey; watched when they compete with each other; and watched while they perform a trained routine for human amusement.

The Romans, for example, were entertained both by competitions involving wild animals and acts performed by trained animals. They watched as "lions and bears danced to the music of pipes and cymbals ; horses were trained to kneel, bow, dance and prance Animals that perform trained routines or "acts" for human entertainment include fleas in flea circuses , dolphins in dolphinaria , and monkeys doing tricks for an audience on behalf of the player of a street organ.

Animals kept in zoos in ancient times were often kept there for later use in the arena as entertainment or for their entertainment value as exotica. Its economic impact means that it is also considered a global industry, one in which horses are carefully transported around the world to compete in races.

In Australia, the horse race run on Melbourne Cup Day is a public holiday and the public regards the race as an important annual event. Like horse racing, camel racing requires human riders, while greyhound racing does not.

People find it entertaining to watch animals race competitively, whether they are trained, like horses, camels or dogs, or untrained, like cockroaches. The use of animals for entertainment is often controversial, especially the hunting of wild animals.

Some contests between animals, once popular entertainment for the public, have become illegal because of the cruelty involved. Among these are blood sports such as bear-baiting , dog fighting and cockfighting.

Other contests involving animals remain controversial and have both supporters and detractors. For example, the conflict between opponents of pigeon shooting who view it as "a cruel and moronic exercise in marksmanship, and proponents, who view it as entertainment" has been tested in a court of law. They both involve animals and are variously regarded as sport, entertainment or cultural tradition. Among the organisations set up to advocate for the rights of animals are some whose concerns include the use of animals for entertainment.

A circus , described as "one of the most brazen of entertainment forms", [] is a special type of theatrical performance, involving a variety of physical skills such as acrobatics and juggling and sometimes performing animals. Usually thought of as a travelling show performed in a big top , circus was first performed in permanent venues. Between the demise of the Roman 'circus' and the foundation of Astley's Amphitheatre in London some years later, the nearest thing to a circus ring was the rough circle formed by the curious onlookers who gathered around the itinerant tumbler or juggler on a village green.

The form of entertainment known as stage magic or conjuring and recognisable as performance, is based on traditions and texts of magical rites and dogmas that have been a part of most cultural traditions since ancient times. References to magic, for example, can be found in the Bible , in Hermeticism , in Zoroastrianism , in the Kabbalistic tradition, in mysticism and in the sources of Freemasonry.

Stage magic is performed for an audience in a variety of media and locations: It is often combined with other forms of entertainment, such as comedy or music and showmanship is often an essential part of magic performances. Performance magic relies on deception, psychological manipulation , sleight of hand and other forms of trickery to give an audience the illusion that a performer can achieve the impossible. Audiences amazed at the stunt performances and escape acts of Harry Houdini , for example, regarded him as a magician.

Fantasy magicians have held an important place in literature for centuries, offering entertainment to millions of readers. Famous wizards such as Merlin in the Arthurian legends have been written about since the 5th and 6th centuries, while in the 21st century, the young wizard Harry Potter became a global entertainment phenomenon when the book series about him sold about million copies as at June , making it the best-selling book series in history.

Street entertainment, street performance or "busking" are forms of performance that have been meeting the public's need for entertainment for centuries. The art and practice of busking is still celebrated at annual busking festivals. There are three basic forms of contemporary street performance. The first form is the "circle show". It tends to gather a crowd, usually has a distinct beginning and end, and is done in conjunction with street theatre , puppeteering , magicians , comedians , acrobats, jugglers and sometimes musicians.

This type has the potential to be the most lucrative for the performer because there are likely to be more donations from larger audiences if they are entertained by the act.

Good buskers control the crowd so patrons do not obstruct foot traffic. The second form, the walk-by act , has no distinct beginning or end. Typically, the busker provides an entertaining ambience, often with an unusual instrument, and the audience may not stop to watch or form a crowd. Sometimes a walk-by act spontaneously turns into a circle show. This type of act occasionally uses public transport as a venue.

Parades are held for a range of purposes, often more than one. Whether their mood is sombre or festive, being public events that are designed to attract attention and activities that necessarily divert normal traffic, parades have a clear entertainment value to their audiences.

Cavalcades and the modern variant, the motorcade , are examples of public processions. Some people watching the parade or procession may have made a special effort to attend, while others become part of the audience by happenstance. Whatever their mood or primary purpose, parades attract and entertain people who watch them pass by. Occasionally, a parade takes place in an improvised theatre space such as the Trooping the Colour in 8 and tickets are sold to the physical audience while the global audience participates via broadcast.

They presented conquered peoples and nations that exalted the prestige of the victor. Julius Caesar chose to celebrate four triumphs held on different days extending for about one month. The annual Lord Mayor's Show in London is an example of a civic parade that has survived since medieval times. Many religious festivals especially those that incorporate processions , such as Holy Week processions or the Indian festival of Holi have some entertainment appeal in addition to their serious purpose.

Sometimes, religious rituals have been adapted or evolved into secular entertainments, or like the Festa del Redentore in Venice, have managed to grow in popularity while holding both secular and sacred purposes in balance. However, pilgrimages , such as the Christian pilgrimage of the Way of St.

James , the Muslim Hajj and the Hindu Kumbh Mela , which may appear to the outsider as an entertaining parade or procession, are not intended as entertainment: Hence, the relationship between spectator and participant, unlike entertainments proper, is different.

Parades generally impress and delight often by including unusual, colourful costumes 7, Since it is primarily emotional resonance, not logical reasoning that determines our behavior, such people have to become criminals as a result of the congenitally defective organization of their brain, which does not allow for the development of ethical sentiments. Those who conclude that there cannot be born criminals because morality is not inborn are guilty of the same fallacy as anyone trying to argue that because language is not inborn, no one can be born deaf.

Kraepelin Kraepelin revised his textbook: Kraepelin Psychopaths described as deficient in either affect or volition, broken into two types — those with a morbid disposition — obsessive, impulsive, sexual deviants and a second group with personality peculiarities. These were divided into seven subgroups: The antisocial personalities in this group were the explicit forerunners of our modern conceptualization.

Adolph Meyer introduced the concept "constitutionally inferior" to separate psychopathic cases from psychoneurotic disorders — the latter he believed to be psychogenic.

Birnbaum Appears to be the first to suggest the term sociopathic — that antisocial behavior reflected the operation of social forces that made acceptable forms of behavior difficult to acquire. Freud never focused specifically on criminal behavior but he emphasized that modern civilization is built upon the suppression of instincts and that each individual must surrender some part of his or her aggressive or vindictive inclination.

An individual who has an unyielding constitution and cannot suppress instinct becomes a criminal — unless his social position is high enough or his exceptional activities enable him to be seen as a great man or a hero the narcissist — paraphrased from Freud 'Civilized' sexual morality and modern nervous illness; Penguin Freud Library volume Freud saw a constitutional predisposition to criminality — expressed as a weakness of repression.

Freud also distinguished psychopathy as a guiltless crime — the psychopath develops no moral institutions — versus criminals who commit crimes out of a sense of guilt — deliberately creating situations where their punishment will be inevitable expressed as a manifestation of the unconscious guilt. Kretschmer Described a continuum from schizothyme through schizoid to schizophrenia: The notion of personality disorders as part of a continuum with mental state disorders and the idea that they are distinct nosological entities are themes that continue to influence current conceptions of personality disorder.

The former are assumed to lead to changes that can be understood from the individual's previous personality, whereas disease processes lead to changes that are not predictable from the inividual's premorbid status. These ideas led to Jaspers's influential proposal that conditions arising from diseases should be seen as categorical — either present or not Livesley, , p. Kurt Schneider described 10 varieties of psychopathic personality: Schneider said that his work was not the study of asocial or delinquent personality.

He added that "some psychopathic personalities may act in an antisocial manner but. Thus, he avoided the tautology inherent in conceptions of antisocial personality that are defined in term of social deviance whereupon the diagnosis is then used to explain deviant behavior" Livesley, , p.

Psychopathy was defined more narrowly to describe what we now call antisocial personality disorder, although the two are not synonymous. Descriptions of psychopathy and, later, descriptions of personality disorders, were largely based on clinical observation" Livesley, , p.

Based on Freud's early views, suggested delinquent children are not disposed to internalize parental norms and thus will be inclined to seek immediate gratification through impulsive behaviors — defects of the superego. Suggested that early pampering of the child leads to insatiable narcissism. In unloved children, antisocial hatred will be generated. Observed that the concepts of psychopathic personality were widely scattered in psychiatric and criminal works.

Differentiated psychopathy from antisocial behavior and noted that there is considerable personality deviation which is not expressed through antisocial behavior. The term sociopath gained wide usage in the 50's, 60's and 70's. The mask of sanity: An attempt to clarify some issues about the so-called psychopathic personality. This is the seminal work upon which the modern era of psychopathy research is based upon. Defined psychopathy using a collection of descriptive personality traits.

Distinguished between primary psychopaths and secondary "neurotic" psychopaths. Defined the variants of psychopathy to narrow the concept to include only primary psychopathy and to broaden the concept of neurosis to include neurotic secondary psychopathy. Secondary psychopaths' hostile, antisocial behavior was thought to reflect a character neurosis traceable to environmental causes, whereas that of the primary psychopath was thought to reflect the "instinctive emotional organization of a subhuman animal' which is rooted chiefly in constitutional deficits.

Secondary psychopaths are capable of responding to psychotherapy because their behavior is based on an underlying conflict and they possess "the original capacity to absorb the elements of moral and ethical training" p. In contrast, according to Karpman, primary psychopaths are incurable and appropriate for indefinite institutionalization. This shift was also associated with the new view of the psychopath as an individual who was essentially normal genetically but who had social or environmental disadvantages that created antisocial behavior and therefore supporting the view that these individuals would normalize if given healthy social support.

Further confusing the terminology was the subsequent DSM shift in , in the third edition, to the term antisocial personality disorder. Offered a typical description; psychopaths are individuals ". Among the symptoms often stressed are defects of emotional control, inability to profit from experience, impulsiveness, lack of foresight, inability to modify infantile standards of conduct, lack of self-reliance, unsatisfactory adjustment to the group, inability to withstand tedium, and irresponsibility of character.

They psychopath can usually verbalize all the social and moral rules but he does not seem to be able to understand them and to obey them in the way that others do. This is what Cleckley called the "mask of sanity.

McCord and McCord Concluded that the two essential features of psychopathy are lovelessness and guiltlessness. Considered the primary features of psychopathy to be a lack of feeling, affection, or love for others and a tendency to act on impulse and without forethought. Secondary features, stemming from those two, are aggressiveness, lack of shame or guilt, inability to profit from experience, and lack of appropriate motivation.

Pointed out psychopaths tend to be "survivors" and may actually be well equipped to succeed in today's "dog eat dog" society. Psychopaths are found in all walks of life, the professions, politics, business, etc. The BAS initiates behavior in response to conditioned stimuli for reward approach or for relieving nonpunishment active avoidance.

The BIS, was viewed as an anxiety system, inhibits behavior in response to cues for punishment passive avoidance or frustrative nonreward extinction , and its activity was thought to be decreased by the anti-anxiety drugs alcohol, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers.

People with a normal strong BIS would get into trouble once and learn from it. Gray suggested the BIS is faulty or weak in some psychopaths thus they feel low fear when in dangerous or high risk situations. Widom Primary or classic psychopaths were said to be poorly socialized, impulsive, aggressive, show very low anxiety and show little or no depression. Secondary or neurotic psychopaths are said to be impulsive and undersocialized but show high anxiety, depression and even high levels of guilt.

Fowles Formulated a theory whereby a BIS which is significantly weaker than the average can be expected to produce a number of clinical characteristics of psychopathy. The most obvious consequences are an absence of anxiety in the presence of normally threatening stimuli and an inability to inhibit behavior in the face of threats of punishment or nonreward.

A weakness of behavioral inhibition in this sense will result in strong reward-seeking behavior, which will appear to be impulsive. At the same time, the inability to learn from past punishments passive avoidance and nonrewards extinction will be seen as an inability to learn from experience and will get the person into trouble with society.

At the clinical level, these features include both emotional lack of anxiety and behavioral approach and active avoidance unrestrained by fear of punishment or frustrative nonreward characteristics. Reid Meloy , developed the modern psychoanalytic view of psychopathy. A collection of papers he edited, The Mark of Cain: Psychoanalytic Insight and the Psychopath , offered a historical review of past psychoanalytic contributions, although these papers focus more on psychological and environmental factors.

Meloy a writes that "A substantial body of research has shown that, at most, only one out of three patients with antisocial personality disorder has severe psychopathy. Psychopathy is not synonymous with behavioral histories of criminality or the categorical diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, although it is often a correlate of both in severe cases" pp.

Meloy b summarizes his view of the psychopath by underlining three factors: Hare described psychopathy as: To give you some idea of the enormity of the problem that faces us, consider that there are at least 2 million psychopaths in North America; the citizens of New York City has as many as , psychopaths among them.

And these are conservative estimates. Far from being an esoteric, isolated problem that affects only a few people, psychopathy touches virtually every one of us. However, the scope of the personal pain and distress associated with schizophrenia is small compared to the extensive personal, social, and economic carnage wrought by psychopaths p. Factor 1 characteristics are born within certain people and Factor 2 traits emerge from [a] predisposing "seed" probably polygenic in nature regardless of although not oblivious to environmental factors.

Stone Like a spoonful of India ink in a jar of water, even a 'little' psychopathy goes a long way in coloring the personality and in determining the life-course.

In ordinary, everyday society one encounters with frequency: Lykken stated that some people have temperaments that make them harder to socialize harder to raise as children. These children tend to be venturesome, impulsive, aggressive, and less intelligent or less talented thus more easily frustrated.

Lykken feels many of these kids would be "saved" if given the proper family atmosphere. Lykken pointed out psychopaths are people who have some trait or feature temperament that prevents them from becoming properly socialized. He said sociopaths are people who are essentially normal psychologically but fail to become socialized because of poor parenting. He advocated licensing for parents equivalent to the standards required by individuals adopting a child.

Suggested the possibility that over time negative childhood environmental experiences can sometimes contribute to deactivation of normal human emotion certain individuals who are severely traumatized or disillusioned by loved ones might over time learn to "turn off" their emotions as an effective coping mechanism and eventually lead to a type of secondary psychopathy - a type of dissociative disorder.

Despite absence of empathy for others, the volition of secondary and fundamental psychopaths is presumably functional. These individuals might represent a population for which early intervention or treatment in adulthood might be beneficial for society.

Gurley, provided a helpful summary: There is much confusion surrounding the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder ASPD and its counterparts, psychopathy, and sociopathy. Some individuals refer to the three as the same diagnosis but with different names e. Others differentiate between the three terms in various ways. For example, Lykken , believes that psychopaths and sociopaths represent subcategories of ASPD.

He goes on to state that although psychopaths and sociopaths have similar patterns of behavior, the two are distinct disorders. More specifically, Lykken believes that the personality and behavior of a psychopath is due to a congenital difference in temperament whereas the personality and behavior of a sociopath is due to unsocialized character caused by parental failures. In other words, the personality and behavior a psychopath is a result of genetics whereas the personality and behavior of a sociopath is due to the environment.

According to Hare , the consensus in the field of psychology is that psychopathy and ASPD are distinct disorders. According to Jenkins , the American Psychiatric Association reported that the term, "psychopath" was a poor term that needed to be changed. Their reasoning behind it may have been the confusion of the term psychopathy with psychotic - two similar sounding terms that represent very different disorders.

In addition to the Antisocial Reaction, the Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics of the American Psychiatric Association included criteria for a similar disorder called "Dyssocial Reaction. The distinction between Dyssocial Reaction and Antisocial Reaction is remarkably similar to the distinction some modern day researchers have made between sociopathy and psychopathy e.

Cleckley proposed 16 core personality traits divided into three categories originally published in , this list is from Cleckley is famous for popularizing the phrase "the mask of sanity.

Nothing about him suggests oddness, inadequacy, or moral frailty. His mask is that of robust mental health. On the basis of these five factors, Hare developed his original 22 item checklist Hare American Psychiatric Association DSM-I was modeled loosely after ICD-6 which for the first time included a section devoted to the classification of mental disorders. Used the term "sociopathic," [Sociopathic Personality Disturbance Subcategory: Following earlier conceptualizations of psychopathy, this designation included a broad range of syndromes encompassing sexual deviation of various kinds, addictions, and delinquency.

The manual stated that individuals who are to be categorized as sociopathic "are ill primarily in terms of society and of conformity with the prevailing cultural milieu, and not only in terms of personal discomfort and relations with other individuals.

Used the term 'Personality Disorder, Antisocial Type'. Viewed these individuals as unsocialized having behaviour patterns that bring them repeatedly into conflict with society. They are incapable of significant loyalty to individuals, groups, or social values.

They are grossly selfish, callous, irresponsible, impulsive, and unable to feel guilt or to learn from experience and punishment. Frustration tolerance is low. They tend to blame others and offer plausible rationalizations for their behavior p. This change was in concordance with clinical tradition, but resulted in much poorer reliability. Sexual deviation, addictions, and delinquent personality types were grouped under a category entitled "personality disorders and certain other non-psychotic mental disorders.

The features of the syndrome closely resembled those proposed by Cleckley and included weak socialization, incapacity for loyalty, selfishness, callousness, irresponsibility, and absence of guilt. A serious limitation of DSM-II was that the basis for diagnostic classification consisted of prototypical descriptions of each disorder rather than specific, behavior-oriented diagnostic criteria.

As a result, the reliability of clinical and research diagnostic classifications used in DSM-II was generally poor. The confusion created for psychiatric classification by diverse concepts led ultimately to DSM-III and the decision to classify personality disorder on a separate axis distinct from other mental disorders and to provide precise descriptions of each diagnosis using specific diagnostic criteria.

The clinical construct was no longer defined by personality traits, but rather by a set of specific behavioral criteria. Easy to assess behavioral traits result in an over-inclusive, but a reliably measured construct.

The core personality attributes of psychopathy were no longer included in the criteria. The criteria for APD adopted within DSM-III focused exclusively on behavioral indicants of deviance in childhood and adulthood, including such things as truancy, delinquency, stealing, vandalism, irresponsibility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, recklessness, and lying. Some effort was made to respond to criticisms of the 3rd edition in the revised third edition by the addition of lack of remorse i.

Continues to emphasize the behavioral characteristics of this disorder. The DSM-IV defines ASPD as a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three or more of seven criteria. There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three or more of the following:. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode.

Individuals who resemble this personality disorder type seek power over others and will manipulate, exploit, deceive, con, or otherwise take advantage, in order to inflict harm or to achieve their goals. An arrogant, self-centered, and entitled attitude is pervasive, along with callousness and little empathy for others' needs or feelings. Rights, property, or safety of others is disregarded, with little or no remorse or guilt if others are harmed.

Emotional expression is mostly limited to irritability, anger, and hostility; acknowledgement and articulation of other emotions, such as love or anxiety, are rare.

There is little insight into motivations and an impaired ability to consider alternative interpretations of experience. Temperamental aggression and a high threshold for pleasurable excitement are typically associated with this type, linked to reckless sensation-seeking behaviors, impulsivity without regard for consequences, and a sense of invulnerability. Unlawful or unethical behavior is often pursued, including substance abuse and physical violence. Aggressive or sadistic acts are common in pursuit of personal agendas, and sometimes pleasure or satisfaction is derived from humiliating, demeaning, dominating, or hurting others.

Superficial charm and ingratiation may be employed to achieve certain ends, and there is disregard for conventional moral principles. General irresponsibility about work obligations or financial commitments is commonly present, as well as problems with authority figures.

Rate the patient's personality using the 5-point rating scale shown below. Circle the number that best describes the patient's personality. Personality disorder, usually coming to attention because of a gross disparity between behavior and the prevailing social norms, and characterized by at least 3 of the following:. There may also be persistent irritability as an associated feature. Conduct disorder during childhood and adolescence, though not invariably present, may further support the diagnosis.

They were effectively made antisocial by their environment. This usage of dyssocial is not the same as the ICD diagnosis of dyssocial personality disorder which resembles the concept of primary psychopathy.

Early research divided these 20 items into two factors: In this model, each of the original factors is divided into two dimensions: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Individuals with psychopathic traits are commonly characterized by a smooth interpersonal style and an ability to effectively manipulate others. Although they may be quite straightforward and direct at times, they are prone to use deception under a variety of circumstances and may be quite adept at fooling others, getting out of trouble, and persuading others to do what they want.

Such individuals also tend to be interpersonally dominant and even arrogant, at times exuding tremendous self-confidence and an exaggerated sense of their abilities or influence. Even so, just as there are many different ways to influence an impression, different individuals with psychopathic traits may differ widely in their usual interpersonal style, and the same individuals may differ substantially in their presentation to different people in different situations.

Psychopaths can be characterized as having an "arrogant and deceitful interpersonal style". Although often not obvious at first, the behavior of individuals with psychopathic traits frequently suggests that they are less impacted by emotional experiences than are others. Part of what makes this lack of emotional reactivity difficult to detect is that everyone displays emotion in different ways. Some people show emotion on their faces and in their voices; some respond with physical signs of arousal, and some do not.

Moreover, although some individuals with psychopathic features may tell you directly that they do not care about other people, others will indicate that they are very upset upon learning that a friend or relative has experienced stress, failure, injury, or illness.

However, there may be few signs that they are slowed down, preoccupied, or distracted by such events. In fact, some individuals with psychopathic traits will argue that interpersonal relationships are very important to them: Moreover, when things go wrong, they are often adept at explaining the chain of events in a way that leaves them with no responsibility for negative outcomes. People with psychopathic traits often neglect their commitments and responsibilities to others. Sometimes, they may decide to change partners or jobs impulsively or even act in ways that seem to undercut their own priorities.

In other cases, they consistently verbalize commitment to others, but their behavior suggests otherwise. They may have difficulty resisting exciting opportunities or an irresistible need for stimulation that somehow eclipses prior promises or plans, or they may have difficulty tolerating mundane jobs or sticking with routines. In some cases, individuals with psychopathic traits may demonstrate an unwillingness to support themselves financially. Regardless of the reasons, they tend over time to fail to meet commitments e.

Psychopaths can be characterized as having an "impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style". The antisocial dimension is associated not with criminal behavior per se, but with early, versatile, and persistent antisocial behavior that often is extremely distressing and frustrating for others.

However, individuals with psychopathic features are more likely than others to commit offenses, including violent offenses. Their criminal activities tend to be persistent and generalized, not confined to only one type of offense. In addition, although some of their criminal activities may involve substantial planning, some of their crimes often seem impulsive or even careless.

Part of the reason for such crimes is that many psychopathic offenders display poor frustration tolerance and difficulty controlling their anger. They are likely to over-react to provocations and to obstacles that block their immediate goals, and this reactivity represents an important caveat to the above description of a lack of emotional reactivity; their general lack of emotionality should not be construed as suggesting that individuals with psychopathic qualities are necessarily easy-going or immune to frustrations.

In addition, several studies suggest that psychopathic offenders are more prone than other offenders to violate the rules of probation, parole, and correctional and treatment facilities. Their persistent rule-violations and criminal activity appear quite useful in identifying psychopaths within offender samples.

Although there have been few studies addressing the importance of these features in non-offender samples, the available research is consistent with clinical lore about individuals with psychopathic personalities who do not break the law.

Not all researchers agree about the centrality of the antisocial factor: Form a high risk sub group for acting-out self-harm. Inadequate psychopaths tend to be more impulsive and may show little respect for their bodies slash marks, burns, "jailhouse" tattoos, etc. They tend to lack social skills and intelligence and they are basically very vulnerable to complex situations, to pressure or to stress. They perform poorly when in ambiguous situations or situations requiring complex decision making and judgement.

It is common for these persons to act out violently against themselves when frustrated or when backed into a corner: Raine has described a group of individuals who display a combination of moderate psychopathic traits with schizotypal traits. These individuals display strong impulsivity, lack of planning and a poorly integrated lifestyle.

It is concluded that the Mach-IV is a global measure of psychopathy in noninstitutionalized populations i. The results provide strong support for our hypothesis and indicate that MACH is associated with psychopathy in general and with both primary and secondary psychopathy specifically. Thus, the Mach-IV is a global measure of psychopathy that assesses but confounds both the unique and common sources of variance associated with primary and secondary psychopathy.

Represent correlated subclinical personality traits capturing "dark personalities. The importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior.

Traditionally, the terms psychopath and antisocial personality disorder have not been used for individuals under the age of Instead, several other terms and traits are associated with children and adolescents that are often linked with the eventual development of adult psychopathy. Hare has generated a very lucrative business by selling his tests for use in forensic assessment — a potential conflict of interest with his research? Original 22 item test, now outdated but seen in original research Hare, Takes several hours to complete.

Based on criteria outlined by Cleckley The screening version has 12 items. Anyone can use the PCL: References for the screen: YV is a item rating scale for the assessment of psychopathic traits in male and female offenders, ages years.

YV uses a semistructured interview and collateral information to measure interpersonal, affective, and behavioral features of psychopathy. It yields dimensional scores for clinical purposes, and also may be used to classify individuals into groups for research purposes.

The B-Scan instrument is designed to identify developmental needs in management and supervisory staff. The B-Scan assesses the degree to which a person responds to challenges to organizational responsibility and effectiveness as expressed in his or her behaviors, attitudes, and judgments. When psychopaths go to work.

Emotion and the brain. Women Who Love Psychopaths: The Clinical and Forensic Assessment of Psychopathy: The psychopathy of everyday life: How antisocial personality disorder affects all of us. Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. A Journey Through the Madness Industry.

Localizing the Moral Sense: Neuroscience and the Search for the Cerebral Seat of Morality, Philosophy for Everyone - Being and Killing. Theory, research, and practice. Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior.

Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy. Surveys of Canadian Federal offenders show that using the most stringent criteria, some Some jurisdictions have used the designation of psychopathy as a mitigator of responsibility reflected in sentencing, often leading to more substantial sentences.

There continues to be a great deal of controversy over this issue as the recent special issue of Neroethics points out:. Functional impairments disrupt appropriate moral socialization and impair decision-making. They also put the individual at increased risk for frustration based reactive aggression.

As such, from some perspectives [55], it can be argued that the functional impairments seen in psychopathy diminish responsibility. Psychopathy likely involves enough cognitive and moral responsibility and affective impairment to rule out full responsibility, but not partial responsibility.

Being a psychopath does not count as an excuse since it would contravene the entire point of our legal system to exculpate the bad. Psychopaths are not morally responsible and do not deserve blame and punishment. At present, psychopathy is not a treatable condition, so all psychopaths who commit non-trivial crimes would be subject to potentially life-long involuntary civil commitment if they are excused by reason of legal insanity.

How, in particular, are we to approach the question of psychopathy's status as a disorder, without being influenced—perhaps in the wrong direction—by the language in which the relevant data are formulated?

An attempt to address Reimer's difficult and important question; argues that irrespective of which of these two characterizations is chosen, our judgments about psychopaths' responsibility should not be affected, because responsibility hinges not on whether a particular difference is referred to as a disorder or not, but on how that difference affects the mental capacities required for moral agency.

When faced with a forbidden reward you see the open cash register , both systems are normally activated. In the normal person, the BAS moves the person towards taking the money but when you reach for it, the BIS kicks in and you don't take the money.

It is easy to see how this balance could be tipped. Two types of psychopath can be described. Combinations of a weak BIS and a strong BAS in a person would lead to a powerful situation predisposing frequent trouble. Exploratory factor analysis EFA and confirmatory factor analysis CFA are two statistical approaches used to examine the internal reliability of a measure. Both are used to investigate the theoretical constructs, or factors, that might be represented by a set of items.

With EFA, researchers usually decide on the number of factors by examining output from a principal components analysis i. With CFA, the researchers must specify the number of factors a priori. Confirmatory factor analysis CFA is used to assess the number of factors and the loadings of variables. In contrast to exploratory factor analysis, where all loadings are free to vary, CFA allows for the explicit constraint of certain loadings to be zero.

Into the mind of a killer. Nature, , Alison Abbott reports from one of the most controversial frontiers of neuroscience. Today, many psychiatrists accept that some people who fall foul of the criminal justice system suffer from a condition — psychopathy — that is as much an illness as, for example, schizophrenia.

Environmental factors may help to determine whether this 'illness' is expressed in the form of violent, criminal behaviour, but a growing number of experts argue that the underlying condition is biological.

Scanning psychopaths, Nature, , Alison Abbott joins researchers looking into normal neurobiology through the scope of psychopathy. In the Belly of the Beast. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 10 2 , He then argues against the punishment of psychopaths. I have some sympathy with both views, but perhaps argued in different ways, and from different standpoints, based on my clinical experience. Doctor Ciocchetti's offers an unusual account of responsibility as a concept that involves at least two people, and perhaps many more than two; and this I would entirely support.

In this sense, responsibility is a transitive and dynamic process that involves not only the personal sense of ownership of an action or thought, but also the attribution of responsibility by others. Moral, when applied to intentions, seems to me to suggest that they are intentions that involve another person and that they are held by an active agent who can make choices about those intentions.

Responsibility implies not only causal responsibility, but also that the actor owns his own intentions about his behaviors toward others. Responsibility, either as experienced by the actor or attributed by others, is a type of moral judgment; an exercise in moral reasoning. Disparities in the moral intuitions of criminal offenders: The role of psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 45 3 , Using Haidt et al.

As predicted, psychopathy total score explained a substantial proportion of the variance in reduced support for Harm Prevention and Fairness, but not the other domains. These results confirm that psychopathy entails a discrete set of moral abnormalities and suggest that these abnormalities could potentially help to explain the characteristic antisocial behavior of individuals with psychopathy.

Empathy deficits and trait emotional intelligence in psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 47 7 , Results indicated that primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were positively associated with the experience of positive affect from sad stimuli, while secondary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were positively associated with the experience of negative affect in response to neutral stimuli, and the opposite pattern was found for trait emotional intelligence.

Information assurance risks include the ones related to the consistency of the business information stored in IT systems and the information stored by other means and the relevant business consequences. Insurance is a risk treatment option which involves risk sharing. It can be considered as a form of contingent capital and is akin to purchasing an option in which the buyer pays a small premium to be protected from a potential large loss.

Insurance risk is often taken by insurance companies, who then bear a pool of risks including market risk, credit risk, operational risk, interest rate risk, mortality risk, longevity risks, etc. Means of assessing risk vary widely between professions. Indeed, they may define these professions; for example, a doctor manages medical risk, while a civil engineer manages risk of structural failure.

A professional code of ethics is usually focused on risk assessment and mitigation by the professional on behalf of client, public, society or life in general.

In the workplace, incidental and inherent risks exist. Incidental risks are those that occur naturally in the business but are not part of the core of the business. Inherent risks have a negative effect on the operating profit of the business. The experience of many people who rely on human services for support is that 'risk' is often used as a reason to prevent them from gaining further independence or fully accessing the community, and that these services are often unnecessarily risk averse.

A high reliability organisation HRO is an organisation that has succeeded in avoiding catastrophes in an environment where normal accidents can be expected due to risk factors and complexity. Most studies of HROs involve areas such as nuclear aircraft carriers, air traffic control, aerospace and nuclear power stations. Organizations such as these share in common the ability to consistently operate safely in complex, interconnected environments where a single failure in one component could lead to catastrophe.

Essentially, they are organisations which appear to operate 'in spite' of an enormous range of risks. Some of these industries manage risk in a highly quantified and enumerated way. These include the nuclear power and aircraft industries , where the possible failure of a complex series of engineered systems could result in highly undesirable outcomes. The usual measure of risk for a class of events is then: The total risk is then the sum of the individual class-risks; see below.

In the nuclear industry, consequence is often measured in terms of off-site radiological release, and this is often banded into five or six-decade-wide bands. Where these risks are low, they are normally considered to be "broadly acceptable". A higher level of risk typically up to 10 to times what is considered broadly acceptable has to be justified against the costs of reducing it further and the possible benefits that make it tolerable—these risks are described as "Tolerable if ALARP ", where ALARP stands for "as low as reasonably practicable".

Risks beyond this level are classified as "intolerable". The level of risk deemed broadly acceptable has been considered by regulatory bodies in various countries—an early attempt by UK government regulator and academic F.

Farmer used the example of hill-walking and similar activities, which have definable risks that people appear to find acceptable. This resulted in the so-called Farmer Curve of acceptable probability of an event versus its consequence. The technique as a whole is usually referred to as probabilistic risk assessment PRA or probabilistic safety assessment, PSA. See WASH for an example of this approach.

In finance, risk is the chance that the return achieved on an investment will be different from that expected, and also takes into account the size of the difference. This includes the possibility of losing some or all of the original investment. In a view advocated by Damodaran, risk includes not only " downside risk " but also "upside risk" returns that exceed expectations.

Financial risk may be market-dependent, determined by numerous market factors, or operational, resulting from fraudulent behaviour e. A fundamental idea in finance is the relationship between risk and return see modern portfolio theory. The greater the potential return one might seek, the greater the risk that one generally assumes. A free market reflects this principle in the pricing of an instrument: For example, a US Treasury bond is considered to be one of the safest investments.

In comparison to an investment or speculative grade corporate bond, US Treasury notes and bonds yield lower rates of return. The reason for this is that a corporation is more likely to default on debt than the US government. Because the risk of investing in a corporate bond is higher, investors are offered a correspondingly higher rate of return. A popular risk measure is Value-at-Risk VaR.

There are different types of VaR: The latter is used in measuring risk during the extreme market stress conditions. In Novak [26] "risk is a possibility of an undesirable event". In financial markets, one may need to measure credit risk , information timing and source risk, probability model risk, operational risk and legal risk if there are regulatory or civil actions taken as a result of " investor's regret ".

With the advent of automation in financial markets, the concept of "real-time risk" has gained a lot of attention. Aldridge and Krawciw [27] define real-time risk as the probability of instantaneous or near-instantaneous loss, and can be due to flash crashes, other market crises, malicious activity by selected market participants and other events. Regulators have taken notice of real-time risk as well. Basel III [29] requires real-time risk management framework for bank stability.

Some people may be " risk seeking ", i. Such an individual willingly pays a premium to assume risk e. The financial audit risk model expresses the risk of an auditor providing an inappropriate opinion or material misstatement of a commercial entity's financial statements. It can be analytically expressed as. As defined, audit risk does not consider the impact of an auditor misstatement and so is stated as a simple probability.

The impact of misstatement must be considered when determining an acceptable audit risk. Security risk management involves protection of assets from harm caused by deliberate acts. A more detailed definition is: Compromise of organizational assets may adversely affect the enterprise, its business units and their clients. As such, consideration of security risk is a vital component of risk management. One of the growing areas of focus in risk management is the field of human factors where behavioural and organizational psychology underpin our understanding of risk based decision making.

This field considers questions such as "how do we make risk based decisions? In decision theory , regret and anticipation of regret can play a significant part in decision-making, distinct from risk aversion [32] [33] preferring the status quo in case one becomes worse off.

Framing [34] is a fundamental problem with all forms of risk assessment. In particular, because of bounded rationality our brains get overloaded, so we take mental shortcuts , the risk of extreme events is discounted because the probability is too low to evaluate intuitively. As an example, one of the leading causes of death is road accidents caused by drunk driving — partly because any given driver frames the problem by largely or totally ignoring the risk of a serious or fatal accident. For instance, an extremely disturbing event an attack by hijacking, or moral hazards may be ignored in analysis despite the fact it has occurred and has a nonzero probability.

Or, an event that everyone agrees is inevitable may be ruled out of analysis due to greed or an unwillingness to admit that it is believed to be inevitable. These human tendencies for error and wishful thinking often affect even the most rigorous applications of the scientific method and are a major concern of the philosophy of science.

All decision-making under uncertainty must consider cognitive bias , cultural bias , and notational bias: No group of people assessing risk is immune to " groupthink ": Framing involves other information that affects the outcome of a risky decision.

The right prefrontal cortex has been shown to take a more global perspective [35] while greater left prefrontal activity relates to local or focal processing. From the Theory of Leaky Modules [37] McElroy and Seta proposed that they could predictably alter the framing effect by the selective manipulation of regional prefrontal activity with finger tapping or monaural listening.

Rightward tapping or listening had the effect of narrowing attention such that the frame was ignored. This is a practical way of manipulating regional cortical activation to affect risky decisions, especially because directed tapping or listening is easily done.

A growing area of research has been to examine various psychological aspects of risk taking. Researchers typically run randomised experiments with a treatment and control group to ascertain the effect of different psychological factors that may be associated with risk taking. Thus, positive and negative feedback about past risk taking can affect future risk taking. In an experiment, people who were led to believe they are very competent at decision making saw more opportunities in a risky choice and took more risks, while those led to believe they were not very competent saw more threats and took fewer risks.

The concept of risk-based maintenance is an advanced form of Reliability centred maintenance. In case of chemical industries, apart from probability of failure, consequences of failure is also very important. Therefore, the selection of maintenance policies should be based on risk, instead of reliability. Risk-based maintenance methodology acts as a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure and its consequences.

In risk-based maintenance decision making, the maintenance resources can be used optimally based on the risk class high, medium, or low of equipment or machines, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Closely related to information assurance and security risk, cybersecurity is the application of system security engineering [42] in order to address the compromise of company cyber-assets required for business or mission purposes. In order to address cyber-risk, cybersecurity applies security to the supply chain, the design and production environment for a product or service, and the product itself in order to provide efficient and appropriate security commensurate with the value of the asset to the mission or business process.

Since risk assessment and management is essential in security management, both are tightly related. Security assessment methodologies like CRAMM contain risk assessment modules as an important part of the first steps of the methodology. On the other hand, risk assessment methodologies like Mehari evolved to become security assessment methodologies. Often the probability of a negative event is estimated by using the frequency of past similar events.

Probabilities for rare failures may be difficult to estimate.

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